Matter, contract, energy, steady, straight, size, changes, mechanics, light, shape heat, subdivisions, optics, electricity, magnetism, Table of Elements, relativity, nuclear.  

Matter, contract, energy, steady, straight, size, changes, mechanics, light, shape heat, subdivisions, optics, electricity, magnetism, Table of Elements, relativity, nuclear.

Some facts about physics

Physics deals with matter and energy and how they interact. It begins by examining the information that people sense about the world around them.

Objects are seen to move from place to place, and when completely free of contact with other objects, they move in straight lines at a steady speed. Being at rest objects are said to move at a steady zero speed, whenever objects do not behave this way, they are said to be accelerated, and a “force” is said to act on them.

The internal quality of the object is called “mass”. When forces act on objects the accelerations produce changes in such things as position, size, shape and chemical nature. The kind and size of any change is judged by use of a quantity called energy.

Therefore, energy forms include light, heat, sound, magnetism and electricity. Traditionally physics is divided into several major topics, namely, mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics and nuclear physics. Because of the remarkable unity of Nature this separation into topics is, to some extent, artificial and exists for convenience.

Newton’s second law, relating force to acceleration and his third law relating action and reaction, form the basis of mechanics. Maxwell’s equations which combine in mathematical form the laws discovered by Ampere, Faraday, form the basis of electricity, magnetism and optics.

An understanding of statics is necessary to describe the behavior of bulk matter and, with the laws of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, forms the basis of heat and thermodynamics. All these subdivisions constitute classical physics of the end of the 19th century. Modern physics began with the work of Plank and the theory of relativity.

Atomic physics made it possible for Mendeleyev to construct his Periodic Table of Elements, to predict their properties and to understand the nature of atomic spectra.

Nuclear physics has been rapidly developing since 1930s. It includes the discovery of the neutron and other fundamental particles; the creation of artificial radioactivity, the discovery of nuclear fission and fusion; the development of particle accelerators for bombarding nuclei with particles possessing billions of electron volts of energy.

Active research flourishes in many other fields such as:

-solid state physics and cryogenics;

-study of properties of matter at very low temperatures, including superconductivity;

-microwave and radio frequency spectroscopy.

Plasma physics is growing rapidly because of the current search for controlled thermonuclear fusion and because of the exploration of space.

Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

to interact взаимодействовать

force сила

at rest в состоянии покоя

internal внутренний

conservation сохранение

to convert переходить

fission расщепление

fusion слияние

accelerate ускорять, убыстрять

quality качество

development развитие, разработка

particle частица

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какие существительные являются исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми:

Science, tooth, engineering, application, bridge, news, use, phenomenon, hydrogen, electronics, knowledge.

б) переведите слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Fundamental, temperature, traditionally, frequency, atomic, acceleration, remarkable, completely, superconductivity.

Б. Образуйте и переведите однокоренные слова, относящиеся к другим частям речи (при затруднении обратитесь к словарю):

Active (v), hardly (adj), functions (v, adj), strictly (adj), separation (v), undeveloped (v, n), predict (adj), invention (n, v).

Задание II

А. Подберите эквиваленты к словам, обозначенным цифрами:

1. research a) сочетать

2. соmbine b) количество

3. artificial c) внутренний

4. quantity d)исследование

5. internal e) искусственный



Б. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на that и those.

1. Energy that is produced by atomic station is used for various needs of national economy.

2. Do you know that man? He is a famous professor that delivers lectures on mechanics.

3. It is well known that personal experience depends on practical work.

4. The development of mechanical engineering began earlier than that of electrical one.

В. Заполните пропуски, используя предложенные слова:

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени.

Б. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых использованы модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты.

В. Определите время, вид и залог сказуемых.

Г. Найдите в тексте причастия II, укажите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Д. Найдите в тексте инфинитивы, укажите их форму и функцию в предложении.

Задание IV

А. Укажите фрагмент текста, в котором обосновывается необходимость изучения таблицы химических элементов.

Б. Завершите предложение в соответствии с содержанием текста:

Modern physics began with

a) periodic table.

b) the development of particle accelerators.

c) the theory of relativity.

В. Выберите предложение, смысл которого противоречит содержанию текста:

1. Physics begins by examining the information that people sense about the world around them.

2. When objects move in straight lines at a steady speed they are said to be accelerated.

3. The accelerations produce changes only in position of the object.

4. Separation of physics into several topics is to some extent artificial.

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 2

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Division, specialised, tax, organisation, complex, system, protect, attack, natural, group, pyramid, structure, profession, construction.

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

Engineering

A science dealing with design, construction and operation of structures, engines, machines, various devices is known in English as engineering for which it is sometimes difficult to find Russian equivalents.

The proper Russian equivalents are “техника, строительство, инженерное дело”. Now the art of building houses, temples, pyramids and other structures is called “civil engineering”.

At the time of the Roman Empire there were already two branches of engineering: civil engineering and military engineering. Military engineering included the building of fortifications and military devices. One may find the remains of Roman structures in Italy, on the territory of modern England which was under Roman rule for about four centuries.



By time civil engineering grew into a profession requiring college training and has become an important branch of national economy. With the invention of the steam engine and the growth of factories practical application of the science of mechanics and thermodynamics to the design of machines attracted the attention of civil engineers.

They called themselves “mechanical engineers”, separating themselves from civil engineering. It laid the foundation for a new branch of engineering – mechanical engineering.

Mechanical engineering deals with design, construction and operation of engines, turbines, air-conditioning, refrigeration devices, elevators, conveyors, escalators. The mechanical engineer designs machine-tools for various operations and their application in various production processes.

One of the many branches of mechanical engineering is aeronautics which deals with the mechanics of moving bodies in fluid or air. In the 19th century with the development of the science of electricity a new branch of engineering – electrical engineering appeared.

Electrical engineering is divided into main branches: communications engineering and power engineering. Communications engineering deals with minute quantities of electricity, used for all kinds of communications; power engineering – with the means for producing power. Therefore, the electrical engineer designs radio, television and telephone equipment; the power engineer – generators, switches, transformers, etc.

In the middle of the 20th century there appeared new branches of engineering – nuclear engineering and space engineering. Nuclear is based on atomic physics. Space engineering is impossible without all modern scientific achievements.

Present day engineering includes chemical engineering, dealing with processes and equipment possible to change the state, energy content, physical and chemical composition of various materials.

Nowadays there are hundreds of subdivisions of engineering but all of them branched off from civil, mechanical, electrical or chemical engineering.

Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

device устройство

invention изобретение

divide делить, разделять

equipmen оборудование

to branch off ответвляться

chemical engineering химическое машиностроение

civil engineering гражданское строительство

civil engineer инженер-строитель

communications engineering техника средств связи

electrical engineering электротехника

mechanical engineering машиностроение

military engineering военно-инженерное строительство

nuclear engineering ядерная техника

power engineering энергомашиностроение, энергетика

power engineer инженер-энергетик

space engineering космическая техника

achievement достижение

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

Possible, structure, impossible, construction, foundation, designer, engineering, profession, escalator, mechanical, economy, electrical.

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Б. Образуйте глаголы из существительных, данных ниже:

Задание II

А. Подберите синонимы к словам, обозначенным цифрам


1. construction

2. house

3. design

4. branch

5. appear

6. profession

7. separate themselves from …

8. foundation

9. to apply

10. modern

a) building

b) project

c) cottage

d) come into use

e) field

f) occupation

g) basis

h) branch off

i) present-day

j) to use

k) palace

l) structure


Б. Подберите эквиваленты к словосочетаниям, обозначенным цифрами:

1. various a) разделять, делить

2. divide b) появляться

3. appear c) разный, различный

4. key figure d) ключевая фигура

5. communication e) общение

В. Отнесите термины со следующими выражениями:

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте прилагательные в различных степенях сравнения и определите степень.

Б. Найдите в тексте предложения, в которых использованы модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты.

В. Найдите основу каждого простого предложения (подлежащее и сказуемое) в первом предложении текста. Определите время, вид и залог сказуемых.

Задание IV

А. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различное значение выделенных слов:

1. An electric currentcan be alternative or direct.

2. The currentin mountain rivers is very strong.

3. If you read newspapers regularly, you will know all currentevents.

4. We must provideall necessary conditions for the experiment.

5. Old people must be providedfor by the state.

6. Students get grants providedthey are full-time students.

Б. Завершите предложение в соответствии с содержанием текста

Electrical engineering is divided into ……… .

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 3

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Form, electron, classical, transformation, transistor, industrial, physical, technology, electricity, control, design, radio, radar, period, experiments, transistor.

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

Electronics

Electronics is the science of electronic phenomena, devices and systems. It describes and applies the flow of electrons emitted from solids or liquids passing through vacuum, gases or semiconductors. Electronics as a science studies the properties of electrons, the laws of their motion, and the laws of the transformation of various kinds of energy through the media of electrons. The basic elements in electronics are the electron tube and the transistor.

While physical electronics is the science of electronic processes, industrial electronics deals with the technology of design, construction and application of electronic devices. The industrial applications of electronics include control gauging, counting and measuring, speed regulations, and many others.

The invention of electronic device is known to have become a new important phase in the development of electrical engineering. It considerably enlarges the application of electrical energy for various industrial purposes. The invention of the vacuum tube made radio broadcasting possible and later on — telecasting. The researches in the field of electronics gave us radar devices, computers, tape recorders, betatron and a lot of medical tools. Semiconductor devices which have replaced electron tubes reduce the size of instruments.

A great advance in electronics is considered to be connected with the appearance of the transistor. The use of the transistor is likely to be the first step in miniaturization of electronic devices and has increased the range of their application. The introduction of the transistor in 1948 is supposed to be the beginning of the evolution of microelectronics which led in the late 1970s to the development of large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits. Now hundreds of circuits can be packed on to one square inch and there seems to be no limit to it. The technology of so-called molecular epitaxy is the best proof of this suggestion.

Electronics is evident to have made a great contribution to automation. It has extended the range of automatic control in large-scale industrial operations and made the processing of information rapid. Electronic computers have provided the basis for the construction of automatic lines, automated units, shops and whole plants, tools with programmed control, robots and manipulators.

The steering of big ships, jet planes, and interplanetary rockets is controlled by electronic devices. Radio-electronic systems ensure reliable communication with space stations at distances amounting to scores of millions of kilometers. Hundreds of electronic devices perform various tasks on board every satellite and spaceship. Electronics has penetrated into all the spheres of human activity from household appliances to artificial intelligence and search of outer space civilizations.

Such advantages of electronic devices as microscopic size, high speed, low cost and reliability are likely to have no competitor. No wonder electronic technology is the most dynamic technology of the present industrial age. Electronics is sure to make still greater progress in the nearest future and help humanity gain new victories in science and engineering.

Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

emit испускать, выделять

motion движение

electron tube электронная лампа

measure измерять

radio broadcasting радио передача

to penetrate проникать

artificial intelligence искусственный интеллект

electrical engineering электротехника

electronic techniques прикладная электроника

integration circuit интегральная схема

large-scale integrated circuit(LSI) большая интегральная схема

vacuum tube вакуумная лампа

household appliances бытовые приборы

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

Transformation, construction, invention, miniaturization, application, integration, automation, operation, information, communication, connection, compression

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Задание II

А. Подберите эквивалент к словам, обозначенным цифрами.

1. Science а. устройство, прибор

2. Various b. диапазон

3. Purpose с. обеспечивать

4. Device d. наука

5. Range e. проникать

6. Contribution f. разнообразный

7. Provide g. стоить, стоимость

8. Penetrate h. победа

9. Cost i. цель

10. Victory j. вклад

Б. Подберите эквиваленты к словосочетаниям, обозначенным цифрами:

1. electronical technology a. поток электронов

2. the flow of electrons b. сквозь вакуум

3. a square inch с.электронная техника

4. through a vacuum d. квадратный дюйм

В. Заполните пропуски, используя предложенные слова:

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте и переведите инфинитив в функции определения.

Б. Найдите в тексте и переведите причастия в функции определения.

С. Измените следующие предложения, используя сложное подлежащее.

Model: It is known that transistors perform functions similar to valves.

Transistors are known to perform function to valves.

1. It is known that sound travel faster in solids than in liquids.

2. It has been proved that electronic equipment saves millions of man and machine hours.

3. It is believed that electronics is the most progressing technology of the present industrial age.

4. It is evident that electronics has made a great contribution to automation.

5. It is known that the invention of electronic device has become a new important phase in the development of electrical engineering.

Задание IV

А. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is electronics?

2. What made radio broadcasting and telecasting possible?

3. What can reduce the size of instrument?

4. What is a great advance in electronics connected with?

5. What does industrial electronics deal with?

Б. Составьте все типы вопросительных предложений к следующему предложению.

Semiconductor devices reduce the size of instruments.

1) Yes/no

2) The size of what

3) What(to the subject)

4) Or

5) …, _not_?

В. Выберите предложение, смысл которого противоречит содержанию текста.

1. The basic elements in electronics are the electron tube and the sensitive receiver.

2. Radio engineering technique is widely used in radio telemetry to indicate or record a measurable quantity at a distance.

3. Radio receives is one of the main elements of broadcasting, communication systems, television, radar and many other fields of engineering.

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 4

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Started, administrative, problems, perform, resources, technology, periods, protect, functions, television, disintegrated, automatic, base, commercial, expansion, pressure , class, produced, process, transfer, thermal, diffuse, element.

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

Transistor

Before the invention of transistors electronic (vacuum) valves were used to perform these functions. Electronic valves are wonderful devices. Besides their indispensable use in radio and television sets they do many other jobs. They are used in radar and motion-picture equipment. They are basic elements in "electronic brains.". But electronic valves have several drawbacks. They waste a good deal of electricity. One of the elements in a vacuum valve must be heated so that it will give off electrons. This heating requires electricity and produces unwanted heat that needs special cooling equipment to get rid of this heat.

Scientists found other ways of doing the jobs that valves do. So a new device, the transistor, was invented.

The transistor is a semiconductor device for the amplification of electric signals. The application of transistors instead of electronic valves made it possible to design compact, small-dimension electronic devices, which consume very little power. The transistors are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy into electrical energy by means of thermal elements. They are widely used to transform radiant energy into electricity with the help of photocells, or so-called solar batteries. Light sources and lasers are also built on the basis of transistors. Transistors revolutionized radio engineering and electronics. Because of their small size, the absence of incandescence and other properties, transistors make it possible to produce devices which cannot be made with vacuum tubes.

Transistors are extremely sensitive to external influences. Even thousandths of one per cent of admixtures change their electrical conductive properties by hundreds of thousands of times. They are very sensitive to the action of light, nuclear particles, pressure, etc.

Transistors are made of small germanium crystals. Germanium is an element crystalline in form. Germanium crystal used in a typical transistor may be much less than 1/8 inch square and less than 1/32 inch thick.

There are different types of transistors in use, and still more are being developed. A very fine technology has been developed for obtaining transistors with pre-set physical properties by introducing into them admixtures of gold, copper, nickel, zinc. The transistor of great importance at present is the junction-type triode. This transistor contains three distinct regions of semiconductor, each having ohmic lead. A junction-type transistor can be regarded as composed of two p-n junctions separated by a thin base region. One of the junctions is called the emitter, the other one — the collector. The p-n emitter-base junction is forward-biased while the p-n collector-base junction is reverse-based. This transistor is a power amplifier.

The emitter acts as an injecting contact and injects electrons into the base region under the influence of a very small emitter signal. There they diffuse until caught by the collector field. The collector circuit has a much higher impedance and voltage level than those of the emitter circuit. The transfer of charge from the low-impedance emitter to the high-impedance collector circuit yields power amplification. There are two types of transistor based on this structure — the n-p-n and the p-n-p. Their modes of action are similar, the roles of electrons and holes being interchanged in these two arrangements.

Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

Drawbacks препятствие, помеха

Circuit схема, цепь

Dimension уменьшение

Field поле

Region область

Energy энергия

Voltage-level уровень напряжения

To contain содержать (включать в себя)

To require требовать(ся)

Influence влияние

To produce производить

To separate отделять, разделять

A structure структура

A type тип

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

Radiant, amplifier, obtaining, physical, introduce, resources, emitter, action, founded, dependent, typical, electrical, successive, arrangement, caught, independent

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Б. Образуйте и переведите однокоренные слова, относящиеся к другим частям речи (при затруднении обратитесь к словарю):

Action (v), resist (n), dependent (v), collector (v), amplify (n), disintegrated (v), successive (n), type (adj), requirement (v), technology (adj), independent (n, v)

Задание II

А. Подберите эквивалент к словам, обозначенным цифрами.


1. triod

2. junction

3. to perform

4. source

5. hole.

6. charge

7.invention

8. copper

9. pressure

10. sensitive

a. переход

b. источник

c. изобретение

d. давление

e. триод

f. медь

g.чувствительный

h. производить, исполнять

i. дыра, отверстие

j. заряд


Б. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык.

1. light source

2. base region

3. a power amplifier

4. external influence

5. cooling equipment

В. Заполните пропуски, используя предложенные слова:

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте и переведите инфинитивы.

Б. Найдите причастия в тексте, укажите их форму, функцию в предложении и переведите.

В. Найдите модальные глаголы в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.

1. One of the elements in a vacuum valve must be heated so that it will give off electrons.

2. A junction-type transistor can be regarded as composed of two p-n junctions separated by a thin base region.

Задание IV

Ответьте на вопросы к тексту:

1. Where are vacuum valves and transistor used?

2. What is the transistor used for?

3. What elements are transistors made of?

4. What is the basic element in “electronic brains’?

5. What is the difference in impedance and voltage level between the collector circuit and the emitter circuit?

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 5

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Cathode, cinema, effect, fact, fluorescent, medicine, monster, photographic, stop, tube.

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

X-Rays

In the closing month of 1895 the world was such as this: there was no radio, the cinema was only one year old, the first motor-cars had just appeared and the population thought they were horseless monsters.

At that very time there appeared an announcement that a German professor, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen had discovered a new kind of rays. The rays were invisible, they could pass through skin and flesh, through clothes, but the cast shadows of the bones could be seen on a photographic plate.

Doctor Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen came to his discovery working with cathode ray tubes of Joseph Thompson Crookes who was very much interested in the composition and possibilities of cathode rays, discovered by him.

Scientists thought these rays were valuable only for scientific research. But Crookes’s cathode ray tubes played a very important role in Roentgen’s discovery of his all-penetrating rays.

On this particular day Roengen was working in his darkened laboratory.

Interested in the fact that Crookes’s cathode rays caused certain chemicals to glow in the dark when they were brought close to the window through which the rays were emerging, Roentgen decided to find the reason for it.

Cathode rays could not penetrate the thin black cardboard in which Roentgen enclosed his Crookes tube. But when he switched on the current to his tube to make sure that his black box was light-proof, the scientist was puzzled again when he noticed a strange glow at the far corner of his laboratory bench. He switched on the current again and again and every time he saw a glow. At last he was sure that the glow had come from a small fluorescent screen which was lying there. What mysterious unknown rays caused this fluorescent effect?

Roentgen found that this effect was not due to the cathode rays; these unknown rays were able to penetrate the air much more strongly than the cathode rays came through his light-proof cardboard box, all sorts of opaque materials which he placed between the source of the new discovered rays and the fluorescent screen. These Xrays as he called them, passed through wood, thin sheets of aluminum, the flesh of his own hand and some other materials.

One more detail attracted the scientist’s attention: X-rays were completely stopped by the bones of his hand. When he had tested their effect on photographic plates he saw that they were darkened on exposure to the X-rays.

Roentgen’s discovery contributed much to the benefit of science. The first science to realize its importance was medicine. But medicine is only one field of their wide application.

X-ray examination has found application in various kinds of industrial processes.

Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

light-proof светостойкий

operate работать, действовать

application применение

independent независимый

penetrate проникать, проходить сквозь

cathode ray tubes катодно-лучевая трубка

flesh вспышка

screen экран

discovery открытие

source источник

emerge появляться, всплывать

characteristic характерная черта, особенность

exist существовать

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

Population, independent, appearance, valuable, forms, larger, invariably, reflects, similarly, prefers, strongly, contributed.

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Б. Образуйте и переведите однокоренные слова, относящиеся к другим частям речи (при затруднении обратитесь к словарю):

Effective (v, n), discovery (v), invariably (v, adj, n), similarly (adj), prefers (adj), n), responsibility (adj, v),

Задание II

А. Подберите синонимы:


1.population

2. radio

3. to discover

4. clothes

5. composition

6. possibilities

7. to cause

8. to emerge

9. to penetrate

10. to notice

a) wireless

b) people

c) to emit

d) to invent

e) material

f) to make

g) structure

h) opportunities

i) to see

j) to watch

k) to pass through

l) to explore


Б. Подберите эквиваленты к словосочетаниям, обозначенным цифрами:

1. фотопластинка a) fluorescent screen

всепроникающие лучи b) industrial process

флуоресцентный экран c) all-penetrating rays

промышленный процесс d) photographic plate

непроницаемый материал e) opaque material

В. Заполните пропуски, используя предложенные слова:

Задание III

Задайте к тексту 5 вопросов разного типа.

Задание IV

A. Вставьте в предложения правильные предлоги, данные ниже

with, into, of, to, through, out, behind:

1. Many people came … Roentgen and asked him whether his rays could pass … kinds … objects.

2. They asked him what were the prospects … their application and when he would be able to make a public demonstration … his discovery.

3. The result … his experimenting … Crookes’s tube surprised even himself.

4. Roentgen wanted to find … why the fluorescent screen had been set a glow.

5. The fluorescent screen was lying some feet … the masked tube.

Б. Завершите предложение в соответствии с содержанием текста:

X-Ray examination has found application in

a) air crafting.

b) medicine.

c) different branches of industry.

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 6

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

System, modern, functions, regulation, standards, protection, medical, museums, parks, cultural, public, electricity, gas, transport, commercial, companies, planning, co-ordination, activities, typically, population, structures, vacant, form, administrative, veto, acts, type, budget, manager, administration

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

Television

Television provides a means of viewing the images of objects that are out of sight, i.e. far removed from the observer.

The images of moving or stationary objects are converted into electric signals and these signals are transmitted by a television transmitter. The television receiver (TV-set) picks up these signals and performs the reverse conversion of electrical signals into the image displayed on the screen of a cathode ray tube (CRT). Television signals can be transmitted by means of transmission lines as well as by radio. The transmission of video signals is more complicated than the transmission of audio signals by means of radio-waves. There is a difference between the perception of audio signals and video signals by the human being. No matter how complex the audio signal is, the human ear interprets it as the sum total of all its components, i.e. as a single sound. The human eye, on the other hand, can perceive many different objects at one and the same time. Modern television techniques have taken all the peculiarities of human sight into consideration.

The tube in the television receiver, that provides picture display, is called the picture tube or kinescope. The image of an object is projected onto the camera tube. The electron beam of this tube scans the image point by point. The beam scanning is controlled by a scan unit. At the tube output, pulses corresponding to the image are generated. These signals are usually termed the picture signals.

These pulses are amplified and used to drive the television transmitter, where they modulate the transmitter carrier. Transmission is usually achieved by amplitude-modulation techniques. The resulting radio-frequency vision signal's are transmitted by the aerial and picked up by the receiving aerial, in which they induce an e. m. f. corresponding in frequency and waveform to the transmitted signals. Received signals are fed to the video channel amplifier that is essentially a pulse receiver. Here the signals are amplified and detected; the picture signals from the detector output are amplified and used to drive the television tube brightness control electrode. The movement of the electron beam in the television tube must be strictly synchronous and in phase with the electron beam of the camera tube. This phasing is accomplished by transmitting special sync pulses, provided by a synchronization generator (timer). These sync pulses control the scan of the camera tube and are transmitted along with the picture signals. At the receiver, these sync pulses are extracted from the composite video signal and used to control the operation of the scan.

In television broadcasting, the sound signal is transmitted simultaneously with the video signal. The audio signal from a microphone is amplified and used to modulate the frequency sound channel carrier. Both transmitters feed one common aerial through a special coupling filter. The receiver aerial picks up the sound and vision radio frequency signals. After amplification, the sound signal is separated from the composite signal, amplified, and used to drive a loudspeaker.

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

Composite, brightness, essentially, modulate, closely, co-ordination, difference, density, involves, oldest, newer, type, transmitter, scanning

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Б. Образуйте и переведите однокоренные слова, относящиеся к другим частям речи (при затруднении обратитесь к словарю):

Enforcement (n, v), convert ( adj), transmission (v), controlling (v), generate (n), electricity (adj), density (adj), involves (n), detector (v), responsible, frequency (adj)

Задание II

А. Подберите эквивалент к словам, обозначенным цифрами:

1. object a. резервный

2. invention b. фильтр

3. redundant с. громкоговоритель, колонка

4. similarity d. обеспечивать

5. filter e. предмет

6. loudspeaker f. достигать, забираться

7. to provide g. усиливать

8. to achieve k. изобретение

9. to amplify i. передавать

10. to transmit j. схожесть, подобие

Б. Подберите эквиваленты к словосочетаниям, обозначенным цифрами:

1. the electron beam a. импульсный приемник

2. the composite signal b. сканер

3. a pulse receiver c. человеческое ухо

4. a scan unit d. поток электронов

5. the human ear e. композитный сигнал

В. Заполните пропуски, используя предложенные слова:

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос.

1. What is difference between the audio signals and video signals?

Б. Завершите предложение в соответствии с содержанием текста:

The movement of the electron beam in the television tube must…

Задание IV

A. Найдите в тексте абзац, в котором говориться о принципе аудио и видео сигналов в телевещании.

Б. Найдите в тексте и переведите предложение, содержащее союз “as … as …“.

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.


CHAPTER II

COMPUTER

Unit 1

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Instruct, perform, component, electronic, coordinate, instruction, printer, peripheral, data, peripheral

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

Computer as it is

Computers are electronic machines which can accept data in a certain form process the data and give the results of the processing in a specified format as information.

Three basic steps are involved in the process. First, data is fed into the computer’s memory. Then, when the program is run, the computer performs a set of instructions and processes the data. Finally, we can see the results on the screen or in printed form.

Information in the form of data and programs is known as software, and the electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system are called hardware. A standard computer system consists of three main sections: the central processing unit (CPU), the main memory and the peripherals.

Perhaps the most influential component is the central processing unit. Its function is to execute program instructions and coordinate the activities of all the other units. In a way, it is the “brain” of the computer. The main memory holds the instructions and data which are currently being processed by the CPU. The peripherals are the physical units attached to the computer. They include storage devices and input/output devices.

Storage devices (floppy, hard or optical disks) provide a permanent storage of both data and programs. Disk drivers are used to handle one or more floppy disks. Input devices enable data to go into the computer’s memory. The most common input devices are the mouse and the keyboard. Output devices enable us to extract the finished product from the system. For example, the computer shows the output on the monitor or prints the results onto paper by means of a printer.

On the rear panel of the computer there are several ports into which we can plug a wide range of peripherals – modems, fax machines, optical drives and scanners.

These are the main physical units of a computer system, generally known as the configuration.

Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

Data – данные

To perform – выполнять

To process – обрабатывать

Software – программное обеспечение

Hardware – аппаратное обеспечение

Central processing unit – центральный процессор

Main memory – основная память

Peripherals – периферийное оборудование

Storage device – устройство хранения

Input device – устройство ввода информации

Mouse – мышь

Keyboard – клавиатура

Output device – устройство вывода информации

Monitor – экран, монитор

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

physical, optical, central, peripheral, processing, currently, composite, brightness, essentially, modulate, closely, oldest, newer, type, transmitter, scanning

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Б. Переведите, обращая внимание на суффиксы, определяя часть речи каждого из слов:

1. Print, printer, printed, printing;

2. Process, processing, processor, processed;

3. Coordinate, coordination, coordinative, coordinating;

4. Specify, specific, specified, special;

5. Communication, communicate, communicator, communicative, communicating;

Задание II

А. Образуйте слова с противоположным значением. Переведите.

Possible, reliable, practical, safe, efficient, measurable, advantage, coding

Б. Подберите эквиваленты к словосочетаниям, обозначенным цифрами:

1. computer system a. центральный процессор

2. storage device b. устройства вывода информации

3. central processing unit c. компьютерная система

4. peripherals d.устройство хранения

5. output device e. периферийное оборудование

В. Для каждого термина из данной таблицы подберите соответствующее определение из приведенных ниже:

a. software b. peripheral devices c. monitor d. floppy disk

e. hardware f. input g. port h. output

i. central processing unit;

1. The brain of the computer.

2. Physical parts that make up a computer system.

3. Programs which can be used on a particular computer system.

4. The information which is presented to the computer.

5. Results produced by a computer.

6. Hardware equipment attached to the CPU.

7. Visual display unit.

8. Small device used to store information. Same as “diskette”.

9. Any socket or channel in a computer system into which an input/output device may be connected.

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос.

What is the most influential component in every computer?

Б. Завершите предложение в соответствии с содержанием текста:

A standard computer system consists of…

В. Составьте пять вопросов разного типа к данному ниже предложению.

The computer prints the results onto paper by means of a printer.

Задание IV

A. Определите залог (активный - пассивный) и грамматическое время сказуемого в следующих предложениях. Переведите.

1. Three basic steps are involved in the process.

2. The computer performs a set of instructions and processes the data.

3. Disc drives are used to handle one or more floppy disks.

4. A standard computer system consists of three main sections: the CPU; the main memory and the peripherals.

Б. Найдите в тексте и переведите предложения с прилагательными в превосходной степени.

Задание V

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 2

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Magnetic, program, modify, card, machine, generation, multiprogramming, concept, modify, computer, instruction, intelligence, data.

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь

Generations of computer

First Generation Computers (1954-59) were rather bulky in size, required large amounts of air conditioning and repair time also. The important advantages over earlier machines were speed of calculation, use of the stored program, the ability to apply logical decisions to calculated results, various types of input and output equipment, magnetic tape, paper tape, ability to modify its own program, etc.

Second Generation Computers (1959-64) replaced the vacuum tubes with the tiny transistor, thus requiring less power and offering greater reliability. High speed card readers and printers were introduced. Symbolic programming was replacing machine language programming during this period. Random access devices were introduced. Repair and maintenance time was greatly reduced.

Third Generation Computers (1964-70) were characterized by advanced miniaturization and refinement of computer components. Greater compilers, newer and faster methods of input and output, optical scanners, magnetic ink character readers, data transmission over long distances, displays on video tubes, multiprogramming, tremendous storage capacities, remote terminals with access to central computers – innovations introduced during this period.

Fourth Generation Computers (1970-1980) featured many changes in all sectors of the computer field. The concept of “Virtual Storage” increased the main storage capabilities of computers by allowing a computer to directly access outside storage devices as though they were part of main storage. The minicomputer made spectacular advances during this period.

Fifth Generation. In the 1980s very large scale integration (VISI), in which hundreds of thousands of transistors were placed on a single chip, became more and more common.

The “shrinking” trend continued with the introduction of personal computers (PCs) used by individuals. By the late 1980s some personal computers were run by microprocessors that could process about 4000000 instructions per second.

The new generation, the so-called “fifth” generation is using new technologies with new programming languages capable of amazing feats in the area of artificial intelligence.

Задание I

А. Определите

а) какой частью речи являются следующие слова:

Newer, reader, directly, introduction, instruction, capable, languages, intelligence, faster, refinement, allowing, personal, symbolic, logical, modify, programming, advantages

б) переведите приведенные выше слова, учитывая значение их суффиксов/префиксов.

Б. Образуйте и переведите однокоренные слова, относящиеся к другим частям речи (при затруднении обратитесь к словарю):

Conditioning (n, v), requirement (v.), maintenance (v), reducing (v), store (n), generate (adj), industry (adj), introduce (n), detect (n), general (v), person (adj).

Задание II

А. Подберите слова (а, b, c…), к утверждениям, обозначенным цифрами

b) Babbage

c) First Generation Computer

d) Fourth Generation Computer

e) Jacquard, Hollerith

f) Pascal

g) Second Generation Computer

h) Third Generation Computer

1. Inventor of the first calculating machine.

2. Earliest known calculating device.

3. Bulky in size, requiring large amounts of air conditioning and having a

high maintenance rate.

4. Developed punched card principle used in automatic looms.

5. Allows computer to direct access outside storage devices.

6. Replaced vacuum tubes with transistors.

7. Advanced miniaturization and refined computer components.

8. Invented large scale calculators.

Б. Вставьте предлог, где это необходимо

1. Computer program of … future will probably be quite different from those in … use today.

2. It will be … interesting future – waiting for each new development and marveling at each new advance in data processing.

3. Every home could have … built-in communications system, similar to … cable television.

4. A built-in communications system will allow … user to have … world’s information at his immediate disposal without leaving his home.

5. … programming as we know it may cease to exist.

В. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на использование времена группы «Perfect»:

1. Biochemists have found a physical limit to the information they can obtain with their instruments.

2. Computers have been especially valuable in analyzing the signals from outer space.

3. Scientific research has moved into the foreground of human activity.

4. The achievements of computers in all sciences have been fantastic.

5. The object of this text has been to show the usage of computers in various sciences.

Задание III

А. Найдите в тексте ответ на вопрос.

What means the concept of “Virtual Storage”?

Б. Завершите предложение в соответствии с содержанием текста:

The third generation computers were characterized …

Задание IV

Выполните письменный перевод текста.

Unit 3

Подберите русские эквиваленты следующим словам и словосочетаниям, содержащим интернациональные корни:

Bank, management, figure, dynamic, information, system, information, instrument, astronomy, figure, technology, mathematical, calculation, molecules, psychology, medical, telescope

Прочитайте текст. Пользуясь словарем, определите значение незнакомых слов и выпишите их в тетрадь.

Computers in science

Computers are perhaps the most useful tools ever invented by mankind. In this, the era of computers, they are used to count our votes, figure our bank accounts, help plan new buildings and bridges, guide our astronauts through space and assist management in its everyday decisions.

The dynamic introduction of the computer has changed man's information needs entirely. Man has developed methods of compiling and analyzing large quantities of data with a minimum amount of human intervention. Technological advances in all fields have been dynamic and extensive. The methods of applying data processing systems to information needs are boundless. With each new application, data processing systems can be used to help man increase his productivity and advance civilization further. It's a giant step forward in man's utilization of science and knowledge as a means of progress.

What can computers do for the scientist? Now weather scientists are able to work out astronomical number of calculations for predicting weather changes. They are even working on a mathematic model of the world's weather that may someday enable us to make accurate weather forecasts a year or more ahead of time.

In medicine computers are helping researchers test drugs by extrapolating the information gained in limited trials, so that large scale tests will not only be safer, but will yield far more useful information. Computers are helping doctors make diagnoses by winnowing down the information a doctor has to go through to arrive at a valid conclusion.

Biochemists are using computers as a sort of mathematical microscope, in delving into the secret of the living cell; they have found a physical limit to the information they can obtain with their instruments. By using computers they have already obtained and are beginning to construct an accurate picture of the giant molecules that are the building blocks of all living things.

In astronomy, computers, of course, serve as computational workhorses, figuring out the exact positions and orbits of planets, stars and other heavenly bodies. With the growing importance of r


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